These are JawsII cells — immature dendritic cells that were derived from the bone marrow of mice of a specific genetic background*, and subsequently immortalized for use in continuous cell culture. Like immature dendritic cells in vivo, cells from the JawsII line can become mature dendritic cells, which have a characteristic dendrite-like morphology, upon stimulation with antigen.
Dendritic cells, along with macrophages and B cells, are antigen-presenting cells. Immature dendritic cells, which are visually very similar to the cells pictured above, capture antigens from their surroundings via mechanisms such as phagocytosis. then process these antigens and present them on their surfaces in the context of MHC class II. Acquisition and presentation of antigen leads to the migration of dendritic cells to the lymph nodes, where they present antigen to (and stimulate) T and B cells.
Dendritic cells can also be derived from either immortalized monocyte cell lines or primary monocytes derived from blood. In a lab setting, monocyte differentiation into immature dendritic cells is induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 *; stimulating the immature dendritic cells with potent mediators of inflammation like TNF-alpha will induce their maturation into dendrite-bearing cells.
Steel padlocks typically attached to the grilles of shrines; Iran, 19th-20th century, from the collection of Parviz Tanavoli.
“Another pilgrimage practice is making a request and a corresponding vow. For example, a pilgrim might pray for success in a business venture and make a vow to pay so much to the shrine if he is successful. As he makes the vow the pilgrim tears off a piece of fabric from his clothing, or takes a piece of wool or thread of some sort, and ties it to the grill. Alternatively he attaches a padlock [like those pictured above] to it. This action signifies the binding of the pilgrim to his intercessor, i.e. the Imam buried there, and acts as a reminder to the intercessor of the pilgrim’s request and promise. Locks are also attached by pilgrims to other grilles, e.g. the steel window in the shrine of the Imam Reza in Mashhad, which faces the tomb chamber and separates it from the outer part of the shrine complex. It is a favourite place to hang locks […].”
— James W. Allan, from The Art and Architecture of Twelver Shi’ism
Allan notes that these padlocks are but one of two types associated with shrines in Iran. The other type of padlock is “[…] the shrine padlock, which is used to fasten the door of the zarih.”
I thought buying a Kindle would help me stop rabidly stockpiling books, but I was clearly mistaken. These are recent additions to my personal library, with several more not pictured.
Sherine Hamdy, from the introduction to Our Bodies Belong to God: Organ Transplants, Islam, and the Struggle for Human Dignity in Egypt
Elsewhere in the introduction, Hamdy writes: “The historical reality of organ transplantation worldwide reveals a rocky beginning that is both obscured and denied by the popular U.S. rhetoric of the “gift of life.” In Egypt, as elsewhere, many of the early recipients of kidneys died shortly after their transplant operations. In the province of Shbin al-Kom, the first three liver lobe transplants in the 1990s resulted in both the recipients and the healthy living donors dying before a moratorium on the procedure was called into effect.”
For more about schistosomiasis in Egypt, refer to "Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt" by Rashida M. Barakat; for more about the link between anti-schistosomiasis treatments and hepatitis C virus, refer to "Further evidence for association of hepatitis C infection with parenteral schistosomiasis treatment in Egypt" by Malla Rao et al.
Qur’an 75:3 — “Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones?”
I recently had a questionable interview experience in Portland, but seeing this view made the ordeal worthwhile.
Books on my “to read” list for 2014, via the University of California Press